RAF2000 rotor bearing and spindle "Jesus" bolt

Kolibri

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Howdy all,

Currently I'm owner-assisting my A&P during my RAF's annual condition inspection. He pressed into the rotor bearing block my new SKF 3206 A-2RS1 bearing. (The rubber sealed original 3206B.2RSR looked and felt fine, but after its 316 hours it should have been replaced 116 hours ago by "the gentleman from Brewton" when it was under his -- ahem -- "care".)

The RAF parts .doc file has some very wonky numbers that had my Local Bearing Store Guy scratching his head: 30262RFC3, 3026B2RFC3, 3026B 2RSRTVH. Seems somebody had numerical dyslexia, and typed in "3026" instead of the correct 3206, as well as a phonetically similar "RF" for RS. Well, we figured it out, eventually. (While some mfg. still use "5206" nomenclature, the more recent number is 3206.)

The "C3" refers to radial slack between the inner and outer rings being greater than the standard clearance to allow for thermal expansion and reduce Brinelling. I'm not yet convinced such is necessary in a gyro, but others seem to recommend a C3 spec bearing.

Harry S. has used 3206B 2RFC3 and 3206B 2RSR TVH.

Please don't be tempted by the false economy of some $20 Asian or Indian bearing. Spend another $30 for a Germany FAG or Austrian SKF, certified ISO 9001. Try www.ericbearing.com, for example.

SKF 3206 A series are equivalent to 3206 B of mfg. FAG.
These have no fill slots, and can be installed either side up.

I went with the SKF 3206 A-2RS1 (equivalent to the FAG 3206B.2RSR), with two rubber seals. I think a sealed bearing makes sense, especially if one replaces it every 200 hours as a prudent precaution.

The other SKF option was their 3206 A-2RS1TN9/MT33 (which uses a different cage material and grease).

The next post is about torque value of the rotor bolt.

 

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Kolibri

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torquing the RAF2000 rotor spindle bolt

torquing the RAF2000 rotor spindle bolt

Since I don't know how many times my RAF had its rotor off, what's a new AN8-36 rotor spindle bolt and AN310-8 castle nut ($2.98 + $2.77) to start afresh with a new 3206 rotor bearing? That's a lot of insurance for under 6 bucks.

With a Snap-On torque wrench, I clicked off at The RAF Construction Manual's recommended AN8 torque value of 200 inch pounds (only 16.7 ft. lb.). That didn't seem nearly enough for the application. My A&P, though he rarely has occasion to work with AN8 bolts, opined that 40-50 ft. lb. seemed more appropriate, considering the 1/2" bolt size for the gimbal head.

For AN8, VANS RV recommends 40-57.5 ft. lb. (which is 480-690 inch lb.).

Checking other sources (see pdf), dry max torque for 1/2-20 Grade 5 nuts is 85 ft. lb. (1020 inch lb.)

While their other bolt size torque values seem correct, RAF's "200 inch pounds" seems quite the typo. They must have meant between 500-900 inch pounds (41.7-75 ft. lb.). Perhaps Eben Jr. from RAFSA will clarify this important issue.

So, without technically asking for advice and thus absolving any liability for all respondents, what value do YOU torque your RAF2000 rotor spindle ("Jesus") nut? I scoured all the RWF fora for an answer, and found only two (and neither for the RAF):


I had a serious problem torquing my new spindle bolt. The bolt is AN8 working in tension (holding the whole ship), and John at Air Command recommended to torque it to 59 ft-lb. I have consulted an AN bolt torque table and the maximum torque specified for this size bolt is 57.5 ft-lb, and I decided to use 57.5.
http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=7651&postcount=26
When assembling heads for sale at AEROTEC, I started at 40 ft.-lb. or so and then tightened enough to align the cotter pin slot with the hole. Once the nut is snug, the extra amount of torque needed to align the holes is considerable. After all, you're stretching a heat-treated 1/2" steel bolt with brute force.

The use of castle nuts and drilled bolts makes it impossible to adhere to a strict torque value -- but that's what Bensen did. Ernie Boyette of RFD/Dominator looked at this imprecision, didn't like it and switched to elastic stop nuts with no pin.
http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=257985&postcount=6
Another opinion dispensed entirely with any specific torque values:

Many of us trailer our gyros to various airports, fly-ins, etc., and I have NEVER seen anyone put a torque wrench on a rotor bolt. Never. We all do TAS ("tight as sh*t").
With most people TAS for the rotor bolt probably ends up at 40-80 ft. lb., so it "works". While I understand the temptation of such informality, that's not my style, especially for the most critical fastener of the entire gyroplane. (My personal hunch so far is that 50-55 ft. lb. seems about right. I feel that anything 65+ is likely pushing it unnecessarily close to the 85 ft. lb. max, but I'm open to correction.)

Thanks for posting or PMing me your own torque settings by Tuesday night if possible, as I finish up the annual on Wednesday.

Question on torquing it down: the AN310-8 castle nut is very difficult to access, and tightening past snug is troublesome. I know it's generally unwise to tighten from the bolt head, but is this my only practical answer? What do you all do?

Thanks for your help here!
Kolibri
 

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Mike G

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Koibri
I didn't recommend C3 clearances for bearings, or if I did it was an error on my part.
http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=40276
I would prefer a C2 clearance.

Some background.
Bearings are usually supplied with a "normal" clearance (for a 3206 bearing that would be 8 to 27 microns and there are 25 microns to 1 thou) and you can specify a larger (C3, 18 to 37 microns) or smaller (C2, 2 to 15 microns) clearance if you wish and if they are available in the size you're looking for.

Usually if people choose a C3 (or bigger) clearance it’s because they know that the shaft is going to be hot (an example being pumps for the Oil and Gas Industry) and therefore the inner raceway will expand more than the outer raceway and close the clearance during operation.

Now gyro bearings don’t run hot (or they shouldn’t) so a “normal” clearance would appear to be the way to go. However during taxying the rotor is often bumping up and down and this can cause the balls to leave small indentations in the raceway. This is called Brinelling because one of the methods used to test a material for hardness is the Brinell method and that consists of pressing a hard ball of a known diameter with a known force on a test sample and measuring the diameter of the dimple that is left. The harder the material the smaller the dimple.

An example from my career in a refinery was that we had a number of pump failures shortly after fitting brand new bearings. After a lot of searching, and blaming the bearing supplier, we found the culprit was that the new bearings were sitting on a shelf in a building next to the main railway line to Paris and every time the express went passed it rattled the bearings causing Brinelling. I found it very hard to believe when SKF came up with that as the cause ( I think I actually accused them of bullsh..ng me) but under the microscope it was obvious and when we moved the bearings to another location the problem went away so I had to eat some humble pie for that one.

A second potential problem with double row bearings in gyro service where the load is predominantly axial is that it’s usually only the top row of balls that carry the load during flight. Because of the clearance the bottom row is basically unloaded leaving the risk of balls skidding instead of rolling. On the positive side if there is Brinelling it’s probably going to be on the bottom raceway.

That is why I prefer reduced clearances but as I said in the above thread it is pretty academic. The standard “normal” 3206 has given good service for so long it’s not worth the hassle of trying to purchase a special and I wonder where even the top of the range bearings are actually manufactured today.
Good luck with your project.
Mike G
 

Kolibri

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Mike, my apologies. Not having the C(learances) data, I unintentionally had you as a C3 advocate. I'll fix my post accordingly. Thanks for setting me straight on this. I'm impressed with your knowledge on the subject.

That is why I prefer reduced clearances but as I said in the above thread it is pretty academic. The standard “normal” 3206 has given good service for so long it’s not worth the hassle of trying to purchase a special and I wonder where even the top of the range bearings are actually manufactured today.
I was edging toward such a conclusion myself.
Buy a quality 3206 with 2 rubber seals and call it good.

Regards, Kolibri
 
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Kolibri

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Thanks, birdy, I had seen that thread.
Glad you noticed the "new" sound in time.
I'll show it to my A&P, and Chuck's design.

What do you torque yours down to? After 270 views, you may be the only one who's changed out his bearing so far.

Thanks, Kolibri
 

birdy

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Kolibri, i hardly ever use a torque tool, cept on specialist stuff like ( cylinder) head bolts.
There is a reason why a 3/8 tool only has 5" leaverage, and a 1' has 12".
And in bout 40 years of chuckn tools around, iv never striped a thread, sheared a shank or had one that was too loose.;)
Iow, i cant tell you how many foot/lbs.

As i said, after over 1000 hours, the bearing was still good.
Iv never replaced it, only checked and relubed.
 

Doug Riley

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One footnote to the quoted "TAS" crack: I'm pretty sure this person is talking about the teeter bolt. That's why he mentions trailering: you take the blades off via the 3/8" teeter bolt to haul on a trailer. Nobody takes the 1/2" spindle bolt out just to trailer the gyro.

I think it's common not to use a torque wrench on the teeter bolt; the bolt is loaded almost entirely in shear, unlike the spindle bolt, and so a big pre-load doesn't accomplish much.

The original Bensen spindle rotor head had no "hat" bushings; the teeter bolt oscillated in a hole in a steel spindle -- steel on steel. It was necessary to tighten the nut on the teeter bolt just a tad more than finger-tight, leaving room for a grease film.

You'd crush the pillow block-spindle "stack" and lock out the teeter function if you torqued it down.
 

Kolibri

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One footnote to the quoted "TAS" crack: I'm pretty sure this person is talking about the teeter bolt. That's why he mentions trailering: you take the blades off via the 3/8" teeter bolt to haul on a trailer. Nobody takes the 1/2" spindle bolt out just to trailer the gyro.
Ah, thanks Doug for the clarification. I see your point.

To even get to the spindle bolt one would have to first remove the rotor/teeter tower from the gimbal head -- and that would be sufficient. We did not do so from the teeter bolt, but from the two AN5 bolts lateral to the bearing block.

But/however, all readers here no doubt understood that I was R&Ring my rotor bearing, thus the spindle bolt torque value was important to be known.

Since I hadn't any definitive answer on that here, my A&P confirmed that a AN8 nut could take 57.5 ft. lb. After experimenting with normal, normal/thin, and thin washer combinations, one of them worked with a bolt hole/key line-up right at 55 ft. lb. New gimbal bolts/nuts all around, including the two pivot bolts (one of which was seized in the lateral movement block -- never removed/lubed per the alleged inspection last year by Dofin -- and required two full grown men with tools to remove).

My A&P also removed some stress risers from the hub bar, which had apparently suffered some indifferent transport. One half-inch long gash was about .030" deep, and in a bad place.

The other thing we improved on was the rotor spindle washer (which goes on top of the bearing). OEM is aluminum, and mine after only 316 hours was already slightly bent from torque and use. The bearing was already beginning to score the face. (Great, it'll go in my WTF collection.) My A&P was not impressed with that aluminum part holding me up in the air, and birdy's 1100 hours "dic in a shirt sleeve" report clinched the matter. So, a large CNC machine churned out a 4130 steel replacement in minutes. Sort of a no-brainer . . . and I highly recommend such to the brethren. (There are some things in life to F around with, but this ain't one of them.)

I flew it home today from the shop, with new/happy parts and a fresh annual.
Control stick feel was much improved, as the previous roll movement was stiffer because of the seized bolt. But I did not know that, not having flown multiple RAFs.

Thanks to those of you who posted.

Kolibri abides . . .
 
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Kolibri

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gimbal pivot bolts never removed/lubed, and it matters

gimbal pivot bolts never removed/lubed, and it matters

See photo if you want to know what neglected gimbal pivot bolts look like at 316 hours. Do they seem serviced just 71 hours previously, even though Dofin Fritts signed off on such 25/50/100/200 hours inspections when the bird nested in his own hangar?

Quite frankly, after all I've had to sniff out and replace, I feel blessed to be alive after such a constellation of needlessly old and marginal parts in crucial control system areas.

Mr. Mahler of LaPlace with N5002E was not similarly fortunate. Perhaps, with my posts, his fate will not be repeated.

The old controls felt felt pretty stiff in comparison with the new bolts installed with anti-seize. Nicer to fly it now.

Regards, Kolibri
 

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TJMay

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With every post where you continue to bash Dofin, you lose a little more credibility.

If you have something of value to contribute to the Rotary Forum, do so. If all you want to do is put someone else down to make yourself feel good, do it somewhere else. I for one am tiring of you.
 

Kolibri

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Tommy, let's try this thought experiment. Assume I'd never mentioned Dofin's name in this thread -- or even on the forum. You read all my posts alleging neglected (and even falsified) maintenance of the RAF I bought from the co-builder.

Your reaction would seem to be limited to these categories:

1) I am making all this up, with doctored evidence.

2) The evidence is accurate, but the mechanical/safety issues are not at all poignant.

3) The evidence is accurate, and I have described actual safety issues from maintenance neglect and misrepresentation.

So, Tommy, which is it? (Hint: if it's #3, then it's not "bashing".)

____
As far as my adding something to this forum, try these on for size:

http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=602989&postcount=21
http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=602989&postcount=22

Regards, Kolibri
 

birdy

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If the bloke wasnt named, id sure as hell want to know who this socalled xpert is, and make sure he was outed.
Just as sure, if Kolibri was pulln all this out his ass, Dolfin would be off to the nearest lawer ina hartbeat.
 

Kolibri

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Thanks, birdy, well put. I totally agree.
 

SIIaCanuck

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Kolibri, I like the way you think and I've always appreciated Birdy's allergy to BS.

In the Royal Air Force we had a 'blood on the carpet' debriefing culture. Not always needed but, when needed, absolutely necessary.

Carry on mate, you're doing us all a favour by insisting on higher standards.
 

TJMay

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Tommy, let's try this thought experiment. Assume I'd never mentioned Dofin's name in this thread -- or even on the forum. You read all my posts alleging neglected (and even falsified) maintenance of the RAF I bought from the co-builder. Your reaction would seem to be limited to these categories: 1) I am making all this up, with doctored evidence. 2) The evidence is accurate, but the mechanical/safety issues are not at all poignant. 3) The evidence is accurate, and I have described actual safety issues from maintenance neglect and misrepresentation. So, Tommy, which is it? (Hint: if it's #3, then it's not "bashing".) ____ As far as my adding something to this forum, try these on for size: http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=602989&postcount=21 http://www.rotaryforum.com/forum/showpost.php?p=602989&postcount=22 Regards, Kolibri
There are several other possibilities than the three mentioned. I have no interest in debating them with you.

And, I have no problem at all naming anyone who is believed to be dishonest.

I simply suggested that after outing him once, maybe twice and possibly even a third time, you cloud the content of your usually informative posts by continuing to blame him for everything you find wrong or that could be better with the machine you purchased.
 

Vance

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My experience with experimental gyroplanes.

My experience with experimental gyroplanes.

When I purchased an experimental gyroplane I performed the normal maintenance before I flew it and had an A&P with IA perform an owner assisted annual condition inspection.

It was important to me because I would be flying her and when I was signed off to solo as the pilot in command I would be responsible for the safety of the flight.

I recommend an owner assisted annual condition inspection on any newly purchased second hand gyroplane.

I recommend an owner assisted annual condition inspection for any builder of an experimental gyroplane.

I replaced or serviced things on condition.

Even after she was signed off as airworthy the CFI where I received my training insisted on a careful inspection before he would fly in my experimental gyroplane. It was important to him because as the pilot in command he would be responsible for the safety of the flight.

My CFI was teaching me about responsibility and setting a good example.

A log book entry was not sufficient evidence for either of us that the maintenance had been done correctly or that the aircraft was airworthy.

We spent the best part of a week checking weight and balance and looking over the details with two A&Ps familiar with gyroplanes. We took lots of things apart to have a better look at them.

This is nothing like a 10,000 mile service on a Harley Davidson where if we follow directions there is not much to think about. There are not thousands of examples of my experimental gyroplane racking up thousands of hours around the country to teach us what will break and what needs to be replaced or maintained.

This thought process seems very fundamental to me as a part of mitigating the risk of flying an experimental gyroplane.

I hope the lesson here is to take maintenance seriously.

In my opinion experimental aircraft need to be maintained in a thoughtful and meticulous way.

I feel the pilot in command is responsible for that, not the previous owner, designer or manufacturer of the kit.

It did not occur to me to blame anyone for challenges I found.

Now after more than 1,300 hours of flight in this third hand gyroplane I still have a careful owner assisted annual condition inspection and correct any problems we find on condition. I still perform a careful preflight before every flight. When the A&P signs her off as airworthy she probably is. More likely than if I did the work myself or hurried someone by not paying them enough for the job.

I have tools and I have used them. I have worked around some of the best mechanics in the world. I am not an airframe and power plant mechanic and recognize my limitations.

If something breaks on a flight where I am the pilot in command it is my fault because as the pilot in command I am responsible for the safety of the flight; not the designer of the gyroplane, not the previous owners, not the A&Ps who have worked on her, not the person who signed her off as airworthy.

I take my responsibility seriously and learn from my experiences. In my opinion I would learn less if I blamed someone else for my failures.

Regards, Vance
 

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Kolibri

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The AN6-44 pivot bolt (longitudinally mounted, to allow gimbal roll) is installed within the lateral movement block (part #310-025-S15) and its lateral movement stands (part #310-011-S01).

Its castle nut and cotter pin looked a bit old, and as I went to remove them I noticed that the nut was not quite snug and the two steel washers could free spin. Hmmmm, odd. My A&P then had a look, and pointed out that when the gimbal head is tilted right/left the pivot bolt turns within the lateral movement stands. (As a newbie RAF owner, I'd not noticed this on my own.) We both reasoned that the lateral movement block should be pivoting around the bolt, versus the bolt/block pivoting within the stands.

I tried to lightly tap out this AN6-44 pivot bolt for inspection and lubrication, but it wouldn't budge. We soaked it overnight with penetrating oil, but it still took an air wrench turning the bolt on one side and hammer/punch on the other to remove it over ~10 minutes. It had seized inside the block (just as the mast AN6-57 scissors bolt had seized inside the mast -- as it hadn't been removed/lubed every 50 hours per the RAF Manual).

The AN6-31 gimbal mount stand bolt I also replaced, as it would have later fully seized up, also. The 200 hour inspection of "Remove AN6 pivot Bolts on Gimble Head and inspect for wear and corrosion. Replace or re-lube as required." refers to these bolts.

As a precaution, I replaced all four AN5-17A bearing block bolts, as well as the two AN4-22A gimbal activation arm bolts. New nylocs, too, of course.


you cloud the content of your usually informative posts by continuing to blame him for everything you find wrong or that could be better with the machine you purchased.
I've not blamed Dofin for "everything", but the two AN6 gimbal head pivot bolts are definitely on him, per his own inspection signature. My A&P opined that they had not been removed/lubed for many years, if ever. (Whoever had previously tightened the castle nut left enough bolt slack to allow for turning inside the stands -- hence, a sloppy workaround to a bolt already seized up within the block.)


There are several other possibilities than the three mentioned.
No, not really. I am either lying, telling an irrelevant truth, or telling a relevant truth.

I didn't expect the gyro to be perfect, "merely" safe and mechanically sound as represented to me. Now, if somebody with his long history with gyros cannot be trusted and is still in the business, then the E-AB gryo community should be embarrassed about that.


___
Vance, I'm glad you had such a conscientious CFI. I did not in Brewton. For example, I now spend more time preflighting my RAF than Dofin ever took to explain preflighting to me.

You've berated me as if I bought my RAF without any inspection from the Moose Jaw, Montana garage of Bobby Bilbo. Rather, I bought it through one of the country's most renowned gyro pilots and RAF2000 experts. Not only had he had co-built it, he had hangared it for years and the maintenance logbook was full of his entries.

Sorry, but I hadn't a pair of A&Ps (and an IA to boot) as you did to concurrently spend a week tearing down the thing for a annual-level pre-purchase inspection. (And who does, but for you?) What A&Ps in the FL/AL area who knew gyros likely were friends of Dofin, and if I couldn't trust Dofin then I also probably couldn't trust local gyro A&Ps, either. (Had my gyro been locally sold by somebody else, and I called up some random A&P for the inspection, he probably would have referred me to Dofin, anyway. This is what you are not getting, Vance. And it will happen again, because too many in the gyro have been tip-toeing around that elephant in the room.)

What if your trusted A&Ps were similarly apathetic to your safety? How would you have known in advance? You'd have been in a similar position to mine. This isn't about "blame" but properly ascribing irresponsibility.

You've often taken me to task for my original naïveté. That's fine within reason, but you seem to be ignoring the other side of that equation. I.e., how much more time than that have you spent trying to get Dofin to not sell mechanically marginal gyros like mine to new pilots? (That goes also for TJMay, eddie, and others who implore me to "move on" without doing a damn thing regarding Dofin.) That is the real safety issue. I am constantly and publicly improving my own RAF, but Dofin is likely still being Dofin. He clearly compromised my safety with the totality of my RAF's mechanical issues that he either ignored or signed off on, and I've little doubt that two people in LaPlace, LA would still be alive had he given N5002E more than his apparently typical half-assed once-over (i.e., urged control rod ends replacement per prudence and the RAF notice #23).

We're better than that, or at least should be.

We should care about this because if the next gyro falls out of the sky on to a U.S. Senator's favorite nephew, and that Senator had no idea that easily licensed Sport pilots could fly passengers in homebuilt aircraft over cities with such loose regulations on mechanical condition . . . our E-AB gyro world will be in big trouble. So, if I report yet another mechanical issue on my RAF that Dofin himself ignored or signed off on, it's not to make me "feel good" as TJMay alleged, it's to try to rouse an evidently sleeping village to the seriousness a particular gyro CFI's negligent disinterest in regular maintenance.

Where is a pilot's honor and a man's word any more?



If something breaks on a flight where I am the pilot in command it is my fault because as the pilot in command I am responsible for the safety of the flight; . . .
Agreed. My gyro wasn't safe because I didn't know what you knew and thus made foolish and underinformed choices. I now know to ask you first. Vance, to complement all the detail of your gyros' superlative mechanical condition, and your attentiveness to safety and your thoroughness in everything, please recount the rigorous medical testing for your 3rd or 2nd Class Medical Certificate before flying passengers around in busy/complex California airspace. Perhaps my health is not sufficient as PIC? I probably cannot know for sure, being so new at gyro flying. While the FAR will permit a 65 y/o one-eyed Sport pilot with brain-injury aphasia and poor short-term memory to fly on his DL "medical", such a conscientious pilot as yourself would naturally insist on a higher personal standard. Even though I'm as fit as a college student and have a 2nd Class Medical, I don't want to miss out on something crucial in retrospect. E.g., should we use multiple AMEs as you do A&Ps? Have a yearly CATscan? Check our BP monthly? Please describe your version of a responsible minimum health status we all should have before taking up children at fly-ins.

____
Carry on mate, you're doing us all a favour by insisting on higher standards.
Stew Stau, thanks for the thumbs up.

Regards, Kolibri
 
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birdy

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I cant figure sum people.
If it wasnt for threads like this, compleatly ignorant newbes wouldnt hava clue that this dolfin bloke didnt hava clue.
Anyone who says " tone it down, get over it" or anythn that hints of support for this cfi is just as irrisponsable as the dude himself.

Dennis F is either liked ere or is down rite hated, and no dout he deserves critisism, so why the blinde eye to this bloke?
He,s just as dangerous to a newbe.
 

Vance

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Joined
Oct 30, 2003
Messages
15,672
Location
Nipomo,California
Aircraft
Givens Predator
Total Flight Time
2200+ in rotorcraft
Taking responsibility.

Taking responsibility.

I cant figure sum people.
If it wasnt for threads like this, compleatly ignorant newbes wouldnt hava clue that this dolfin bloke didnt hava clue.
Anyone who says " tone it down, get over it" or anythn that hints of support for this cfi is just as irrisponsable as the dude himself.QUOTE]

For me it has nothing to do with Dofin and everything to do with taking responsibility.

FAR 91.3 Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.
(a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to the operation of that aircraft.

It doesn’t take much research to find out how Dofin feels about horizontal stabilizers.

I feel there was a clue when Dofin changed things in the FAA Rotorcraft Flying Handbook.

A good CFI should teach about preflight and a good student should learn.

Kolibri claimed in a post that he is a fixed wing private pilot.

Are we to imagine that his fixed wing CFI didn’t teach him about pre-flight inspections either?

A good preflight would have exposed some of the maintenance issues and pointed to larger issues.

I have found that the seller may not be the best one to ask about the condition of something I want to buy.

A pre buy inspection would have given a sense of how much time and money would need to be spent to make the aircraft airworthy.

It is nice that he is now learning what so many people before him have learned.

In my opinion it takes longer to learn when the focus is on blaming others.

I have found that I learn more when I take responsibility for my decisions instead of blaming my poor decisions and the unfortunate outcome on everyone else.

Regards, Vance
 
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